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It provided for the rejection of laborers -- "skilled and unskilled and those engaged in mining" -- over the next ten years. The railro, in turn, helped them escape persecution in northern California and brought them to less developed and populated territories. While a few of the miners were showing them a site which wasn't producing well, the others salted a bank and mixed fine gold dust with loose earth around the area. Existing manpower needs for large construction projects like the railro might have been met by native Indian and Mexican groups, but the Chinese were contracted with despite growing prejudice against them.

Frontier laundries needed wood to fuel the fires for boiling vats of water and soap. First regional, then national legislation was directed at the Chinese, taking them out of circulation and direct competition with the Anglos.

The Foreign Miners' Tax of already had led many Chinese to the cities to seek employment in domestic services, laundries and small mercantile enterprises. Seaports like Canton and Shanghai had developed into commercialized urban centers. Inthese restrictive laws were extended indefinitely. This time California, as well as the nation, was in an economic depression, primarily caused by wildcat speculation and declining gold production.

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Arizona, too, had felt the influences of this federal legislation and of popular prejudice. American dress and eating habits, even though their contact with Anglos, Mexicans and Indians was minimal. Their role in Arizona Territory, however, has been largely neglected and bears deeper examination.

Much of the gold, however, had been extracted by the late s, and the only other sources of income were in the developing cities. Anglo settlers in Arizona feared a consolidated Mexican vote. They even made progress in conforming to the ways of the western frontier.

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The stock market was based on the gold standard. Having arrived, the immigrants, for a while, did very well.

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Indians would gather chunks of mesquite, oak and ironwood and sell them to the Asian launderer. Nevertheless, the Chinese kept coming.

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Survival for the new arrivals in the Territory, however, often depended on cooperation with other Arizonans. The Chinese were convinced of its wealth after washing out about eight dollars in gold and bought the claim for ten dollars. The need for experienced railroad workers presented the Chinese of California a chance to escape prejudice in the coastal cities. Treaties between the United States and China in and said nothing about the rights of Chinese already living or trading in the U. The Geary Act of extended the Exclusion Law for another ten years and required certificates of residency with detailed particulars about the person, including a photograph.

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Chinese immigration was claimed to be closely related to fiscal problems in the U. The Chinese were accused not only of working for lower wages but also of taking away work that others deserved. A of early Chinese pioneers came to Prescott, arriving after the completion of the Central Pacific Railroad in In November,a few of these new immigrants were received with journalistic bias.

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Intwenty-nine ships arrived in San Francisco bearing Chinese immigrants who hoped to find wealth and security in the California gold fields. Realizing that there was no more of the metal, they gathered up their belongings, rice and tea, and set off for Tucson only to be attacked by Apaches, who killed the entire party of ten.

Initially the Chinese were drawn from their troubled homeland to the sparsely settled western frontier after news had reached them of the vast natural resources and beauties of the region; it was a land to be conquered, then exploited by ingenuity and business acumen. Across all these s is written "Railroad Worker.

Many achieved success and remained as permanent residents.

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As the country developed, new opportunities attracted new waves of immigrants. Those who came to Arizona found themselves in difficulties created by tension existing between Anglos and Hispanics. Ironically this isolation created a self-sufficient community, supported through voluntary associations, schools, hospitals and commercial networks.

In spite of opposition, they established groceries, laundries and a joss house, or shrine, along Goodwin and Granite streets.

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A Miner article of that date states that these twenty-odd Chinese pioneers did most of the work there. Gold strikes attracted Asians and Anglos alike, but the false dream of unlimited and undiscovered mineral wealth left many disheartened and without any hope of income. The Chinese were fine subjects for scalping, as their hair was shaved close to the crown of the head and then tied in a pigtail. Cigar, shoe and food manufacturers in San Francisco continued to need labor as their enterprises developed and expanded, but pressures against hiring Chinese prevailed. Much of the literature on early Chinese immigrants to the western United States focuses on their experiences in California and as laborers on the great railroad construction projects of the late nineteenth century.

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But with the need for transportation and for communication with the industrial Northeast came the construction of transcontinental railro. The prevailing prejudice against Orientals began to be reflected in legislation by George Seward in that year negotiated a treaty with China that permitted the United States to regulate, limit or suspend the immigration of Chinese laborers.

Initially, the quiet, industrious Asian goldseekers were able to work placers alongside Europeans, Mexicans, South Americans and Anglos. Among the laborers, of course, were the Chinese immigrants. They made no trouble and at first encountered little opposition. The Yuma Arizona Sentinel reported on April 14,that.

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Many still felt their hearts flutter when the discovery of gold or silver was mentioned. They were well acquainted with the speculative nature of this type of mining, and, accordingly, were not unfamiliar with incidents of fraud and conniving. Within the Pima County total, Chinese a few with Hispanic surnames were enumerated as laborers. As their appearances in centers of population became more frequent, they began to encounter prejudice. The earliest Chinese settlers came to Arizona just after it had become a Territory of the United States in They had reached a land of frontier opportunities and values, where cultures were ethnically diverse and the Anglo segment was becoming numerically dominant.

The Exclusion Law of quickly followed. These factors, coupled with civil unrest and alternating seasons of floods and droughts, made passage to the gold fields worth any investment and any discomfort in steerage travel across Yuma Pacific Ocean. Circulars from San Francisco's office of the Cigarmakers' International Union reached Tucson at the turn of the century, listing manufacturers who continued to employ Meet, "which is a great injury to our white working men and women.

The Chinese were available, they were disciplined asian, and again they were brought to the expanding western territories. Men working on the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad received dating to twenty dollars per month, a food allowance or rations of rice, fish, beef or pork, vegetables and oil, as well as eating utensils. Furthermore, working on a section of the railroad often brought them into cities and towns. Following the completion of the SP line, a few Chinese remained in Arizona and continued to work as cooks and waiters.

New opportunities arose for the Chinese in the late s when Collis P. Huntington decided to build a southern transcontinental railroad through Arizona. Migration of prospectors to Sacramento and San Francisco created competition between Chinese and others for jobs. Women, for example, began seeking employment as domestics, an occupation once left blossom to the Chinese.

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San Francisco officials, reacting to pressure from unions and those political factions that wanted to rid California of the "Chinese problem," as they phrased it, "quartered" the Orientals in a segregated area. The year saw an influx of Chinese as contract laborers, or "coolies," who disembarked in San Francisco. Although segregated, they adjusted to.

Though they themselves did not eat fish, Yuma Indians willingly sold them to Chinese when the construction camps reached the Colorado River in There also existed an informal business relationship between Chinese launderers and local Indians. They took on a of occupations after the railroad construction played out; they were willing to take jobs few others wanted and to work for lower wages as well. In the West, a large force of workers was necessary for rapid development, and increasing Chinese immigration helped to fill the need, bringing their total s to near 50, by Still, they represented less than one percent of the total California population.

In the s some Chinese who were interested in investing in a mining operation came upon a claim being worked by Anglos west of Tubac. To understand the Chinese experience in Arizona it is necessary to examine their treatment in California, the port of entry for the majority of Oriental arrivals. When the Southern Pacific reached Tucson on March 20,it had become directly responsible for the largest settlement of Chinese in the Territory.

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Periods of drought in California affected agricultural production adversely. The economy, therefore, was a major issue in the political platforms of Pacific states politicians. They furnished their own bedding and the railroad companies provided a "comfortable, water-proof quarter. Here they were accommodated within a similarly restrictive, but far less hostile, social and political atmosphere.

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Arizonans were, for the most part, preoccupied with controlling the large Hispanic population politically and the native Indian population militarily. The new arrivals tended to conform generally to existing political notions: they aligned themselves with traditional parties, voted along party lines, supported party issues, and presented no barrier to Anglo determination of policy. The Chinese presence there was notable in As news of the gold discoveries attracted prospectors from throughout the continent, word also reached the provinces of southeastern China through the Chinese already in California.

Issues surrounding enfranchisement of Territorial residents, however, did not emerge untilwhen Arizona and New Mexico became separate Territories. They became discouraged, however, after getting only about two ounces-the amount of gold salted in the bank. By Lawrence Michael Fong. By the spring ofHuntington's track-laying crews had pushed across southern California and were at the Colorado River. The Chinese did not enter the Territory in sufficient s to be viewed as a ificant social threat and thus were not confronted with the discriminatory legislation or the violent expressions of prejudice that had greeted them in California, Colorado, Wyoming and Montana.

The declining hegemony of Mandarin elitism and foreign Manchurian rule had made survival for the common Chinese uncertain. In this historical setting, the experience of the Chinese was one of relative accommodation during their initial migrations and settlement throughout the Territory.

Chinese labor was cheap and easy to handle.

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For Dennis Kearny and the Workingman's Party, however, the Chinese were a threat to unionism and the unions' monopoly of labor in California. Through adaptability they were able to fare much better in the harsh Arizona environment of the s than in other locales. Chinese prospectors were known to rework old Spanish claims dating back to the 18th century and their methods for extracting gold were similar to placer techniques acquired in California.

Arizona was one such place.

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Others were reported on June 13,in the employ of the Vulture mining works near Wickenburg.